This overview focuses on light materials (foams, aerogels, cryogels, xerogels) that are obtained from lignocellulose fibers, nanocelluloses and regenerated celluloses, whereby the dried assemblies are achieved by ambient / oven drying, freeze drying or supercritical drying. The basic properties that characterize these materials include the apparent density (ρApp), mechanical strength, specific surface area and ability to heat insulation and sound absorption. While similar properties can be obtained from each of the cellulose building blocks by simple adjustment ρApp and the solid architecture, the highest specific surfaces (Approx. 600 m2 G−1) can only be achieved with nano or regenerated celluloses. We explain the relationships between processing, structure and properties to aid in the design of sustainable materials that are produced through inexpensive and environmentally friendly processes and save unnecessary steps, chemicals and solvents. Efficient methods for adapting the properties of lightweight materials are described, including three approaches to reduction ρApp, four ways to increase the specific surface area and three strategies to improve the pressure module. For additional functionality in the structures, renewable compounds are presented that, for example, crosslink, hydrophobize and protect against microbial activity. The tunability of these green materials enables a wide range of applications such as protective packaging, construction, sorbents, biomedical devices, environmental remediation, automotive, electronics and clothing.

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