Biodiesel is a generally recognized environmentally friendly and sustainable biofuel. The crucial point for the industrial production of biodiesel is its cost, especially the price of the crude oil raw materials. Low quality oil raw materials require highly effective catalysts with more active centers (e.g., Acid, base, acid-base and enzyme) for (trans) esterification. Metal-organic framework (MOF) is a type of polyporous material that can control its pore size and topological structure to suit the requirements of catalytic reactions or conversion routes. This Review focuses on the application of MOF-based catalysts in the production of biodiesel. Two methods of linking the active sites to MOF are presented, including intermolecular forces and chemical bridging or bonding. Four types of MOF-based nanocatalysts (ie, Enzyme, base, acid and bifunctional catalysts) and compared with other heterogeneous catalysts. In addition, technologies such as ultrasound and microwave for MOF-based nanocatalyst applications for the production of biodiesel through transesterification and esterification are described. Finally, a brief conclusion and perspective for MOF-based nanocatalysts that apply to biodiesel production is given. The functional catalytic materials based on MOF show great potential in biodiesel production and other relevant biorefineries.