Metal halide perovskite materials have demonstrated unique properties for applications in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, light emitting diodes and photodetectors, etc. The unprecedented world record energy conversion efficiency of over 25% achieved with solution processing perovskite solar cells is driving research to commercialize the perovskite materials. Nonetheless, the use of large amounts of dangerous and carcinogenic solvents such as NN-dimethylformamide (DMF), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), and skin-penetrating dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in current perovskite synthesis protocols for the commercial exploitation of perovskite technology, as these harmful solvents can cause environmental, health and safety problems. Therefore, the development of alternative, environmentally friendly, green solvents for the synthesis of perovskite materials including thin films, nanocrystals, or single crystals with desirable properties is critical to the commercialization of perovskite technologies. In this Review, we summarize the research progress on solution-processable perovskite material using low-toxicity and green solvent alternatives. We discuss the basic properties to consider when screening solvents for solution processing of metal halide perovskites. By carefully analyzing the common properties of solvents and anti-solvent systems reported for the manufacture of perovskite precursor inks for solar cell and light emitting diode applications, we provide insight into the relationship between solvent molecular ligands – properties of perovskite materials – Device performance. We discuss the benefits and challenges of each type of green solvent based on their performance in metal halide perovskite technology, environmental, human health and safety effects, with the aim of providing guidelines for green metal halide perovskite technology.


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